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不锈钢带钢生产技术的发展

ZUOZHE:BUXIUGANGDAI LAIYUAN:http://alisdpq.com RIQI:2020-1-20 17:28:13

信息摘要:

沙吧体育appJIN10DUONIANLAI,BUXIUGANGDESHENGCHANJISHUZAILUWAIJINGLIAN(TEBIESHIAOD)、LIANZHUHEKUANFUDUOGUNLENGYAJIDEJICHUSHANG,BOBANPILIANZHUYAJI、DAIGANGLIANZHU、TIESHUIYELIANBUXIUGANGHEYAZHITUIHUOSUANXILIANXUSHENGCHANXIANDENGBUXIUGANGSHENGCHANDEQIANYANXINJISHUHUODELESHIZHIXINGDEJINZHAN。SHENGCHANJISHUDEFA…

近10多年来,不锈钢的生产技术在炉外精炼(特别是AOD)、连铸和宽幅多辊冷轧机的基础上,薄板坯连铸轧机、带钢连铸、铁水冶炼不锈钢和轧制退火酸洗连续生产线等不锈钢生产的前沿新技术获得了实质性的进展。

沙吧体育app   SHENGCHANJISHUDEFAZHANSHIWEILEYINGDUISHICHANGJINGZHENGDUIBUXIUGANGCHANPINTIGAODEXINYAOQIU,ZHEIXIEXINYAOQIUBUJINBIAOXIANZAIGANGZHONG、GUIGE、XINGNENGHEBIAOMIANTEXINGFANGMIAN,ERQIEYAOQIUBUDUANTIGAOSHENGCHANXIAOLV,JIANGDISHENGCHANCHENGBEN。BUXIUGANGSHENGCHANDEKUAISUZENGZHANGSHIBIDUIYUANCAILIAOSHICHANGCHANSHENGYINGXIANG,DAILAINIEJIAYIJIFEIGANG、KUANGSHI、MEITANJIAGEDEBUDUANSHANGZHANG,SHIBUXIUGANGSHENGCHANZHERIYIGANDAOLECHENGBENSHENGGAODEYALI,BUXIUGANGSHENGCHANDELIRUNYUELAIYUEXIAO。ZHEIJIUPOSHIQUANSHIJIEBUXIUGANGDESHENGCHANCHANGJIADALIZHENGHESHENGCHANLIDEJICHUSHANG,BUDUANKAIFAXINGONGYI、XINJISHU、FAZHANGAOSHENGCHANNENGLIDEZHUANGBEI,YIQIDADAOZAIGAIJINCHANPINZHILIANGDETONGSHI,TIGAOSHENGCHANXIAOLV,JIANGDISHENGCHANCHENGBEN,TIGAOCHANPINSHICHANGJINGZHENGLIDEMUDE。

沙吧体育app   LENGYABUXIUGANGDAIGANGDESHENGCHANZAIBUXIUGANGSHENGCHANZHONGZHANYOUSHIFENZHONGYAODEDIWEI。DAYUE70%DEBUXIUGANGZHUANHUACHENGLELENGYADAIGANG,CHENGWEISHICHANGXIAOFEIDEZHUYAOCHANPINXINGSHI。ANZHAOMUQIANCHUANTONGGONGYILUXIAN,CONGREYABUXIUGANGDAIGANGDAOLENGYABUXIUGANGCHENGPINDESHENGCHANFEIYONGDAZHIWEI360OUYUAN/t,QIZHONGLENGYAGONGXUDEFEIYONGZHANZHUYAOBUFEN,TEBIESHICAIYONG20GUNKENISHIYAJISHENGCHANDEQINGKUANG,LENGYAFEIYONGYAOZHANYIBAN,DAZHIWEI180OUYUAN/t。YINCI,DALIKAIFA、CAIYONGBUXIUGANGLENGYASHENGCHANXINGONGYI、XINJISHUDUITIGAOSHENGCHANXIAOLV,JIANGDISHENGCHANCHENGBEN,TIGAOCHANPINZAISHICHANGSHANGDEZONGHEJINGZHENGLISHIZHIGUANZHONGYAODE。

      BENWENTONGGUODUICHUANTONGGONGYILUXIANDEJIESHAO、DUIBI,ZHEZHONGFENXILEYAZHITUIHUOSUANXIXIAN(JIJIANGLENGYABUXIUGANGDE5GEDULIGONGXU——GANGJUANZHUNBEI、REYADAIGANGTUIHUOSUANXIXIAN、LENGYA、LENGYADAIGANGTUIHUOSUANXIXIANHEPINGZHENGHEBINGCHENGYITIAOLIANXUSHENGCHANXIAN)HEDULILENGYAGONGYILUXIAN(JISHEZHIDANDUDEDUOJIJIALENGLIANYAJI,QIANMIANPEIZHIREYADAIGANGTUIHUOSUANXIXIAN,YAHOUPEIZHIDAIYOUZONGHEJINGZHENGSHEBEI,BIRUPINGZHENG、LASHENJIAOZHI、QIEBIANHEJIANYANDELENGYADAIGANGTUIHUOSUANXIXIAN)DEYOUSHI。JIUJINGYINGGAICAIYONGNAZHONGGONGYILUXIANQUJUEYUGEGEBUXIUGANGSHENGCHANCHANGJIADEJUTITIAOJIAN。DANSHI,CHAOZHEGAOSHENGCHANNENGLIHEGAOBIAOMIANZHILIANG、DAXINGHUA、QUANLIANXUHUADEFANGXIANGFAZHAN,WUYISHIBUXIUGANGSHENGCHANCHANGHESHEBEIZHIZAOCHANGGONGTONGNULIDEFAZHANFANGXIANG。

 1、传统工艺路线的发展编辑本段回目录
沙吧体育app   目前,世界各国仍然普遍采用传统的工艺路线来生产冷轧不锈钢带钢,即不锈钢热轧卷先经过罩式炉退火或退火酸洗线处理,再送到20辊可逆式轧机进行轧制 ,轧后经退火酸洗线或光亮退火线处理,再经平整,最终经纵、横切机组打包发货。

  传统工艺路线技术的发展主要表现在装备的大型化、高速化和全自动化。在传统工艺路线中,可逆式轧机的生产效率始终是中心环节,20辊可逆式冷轧机可以采用较小的工作辊直径,一般为60mm左右,一个轧程的最大变形量可以达到90%,但是,可逆式轧机的缺点是生产率相对较低,成材率低 ,这是轧制工艺本身带来的对成本的不利影响。随着不锈钢生产的发展,热轧不锈钢卷重超过了30t,为轧机的高速化创造了条件,轧机的速度从600m/mia提高到最高l000m/min。为保证轧机高速稳定的轧制,一些工艺控制环节,比如:厚度控制、速度控制、准确停车、高的加速/减速特性控制、张力控制、板形控制等都得到了相应的发展与完善。由于世界不锈钢产业合并整合生产能力,使不锈钢生产集中度大大提高。传统工艺路线中的热轧不锈钢退火酸洗线,冷轧不锈钢退火酸洗线呈现出装备大型化、高速化的趋势。目前,热轧不锈钢退火酸洗的设计 能力达8o万t/a,入口段和出口段最高速度达到150m/min,工艺段最高速度达80m/min;冷轧不锈钢退火酸洗线的设计能力超过50万t/a,入口段和出口段最高速度达到140m/min,工艺段最高速度达到100m/min。美国 AK钢公司印第安纳厂热(冷)轧带钢退火酸洗线年处理能力达到5 7.3万t,处理冷轧带钢的最高速度达到152m/rain,是同类退火酸洗线中速度最高的。


  高质量产品是先进技术的集中体现。目前,世界一流的冷轧带钢产品大多采用20辊轧机生产,根据轧机类型和产品方案,一台这种单机架可逆式冷轧机的最大生产能力为8万~15万t/a。产品宽度主要集中在1300mm~1600mm,1600mm 的宽带钢约占总产量的2 0%。专门设计的不锈钢冷轧机,轧制带钢宽度可达2100mm。比利时的ALZ和瑞典的阿维斯塔都有这种宽带钢冷轧机和退火酸洗线。产品厚度范围宽,从0.1 0mm到4.0mm都能在一个轧程下生产。特殊设计 的冷轧机可以轧制超薄带钢 ,例如用于催化转化器的箔材。

2、YAZHITUIHUOSUANXILIANXUXIANBIANJIBENDUANHUIMULU

沙吧体育app   YAZHITUIHUOSUANXIXIANSHIJINNIANLAILENGYABUXIUGANGSHENGCHANJISHUZHONGRIZHENCHENGSHUDEQIANYANJISHUZHIYI。WEILETIGAOSHENGCHANXIAOLV,JINYIBUJIANGDILENGYABUXIUGANGDESHENGCHANCHENGBEN,OUMEIYIXIECHANGJIAYIKAIFACHENGGONGJIANGCHUANTONGDESHENGCHANLENGYABUXIUGANGDAIGANGDE5GEDULIGONGXU——GANGJUANZHUNBEI、REYADAIGANGTUIHUOSUANXIXIAN、LENGYA、LENGYADAIGANGTUIHUOSUANXIXIANHEPINGZHENGHEBINGCHENGYITIAOLIANXUSHENGCHANXIAN,DAOMUQIANWEIZHI,QUANSHIJIEJIANCHENGDEFLNTUIHUOSUANXILIANXUXIAN,DAZHIKEYIFENWEISANZHONGLEIXING:

  DIYIZHONGLEIXINGRUZUIZAOZAIMEIGUODEJ&LTESHUGANGGONGSIDEYAZHITUIHUOSUANXIXIANHESUIHOUFAGUOUgineGONGSIYISIBEIGECHANGJIANSHEDEZHIJIEFLNTUIHUOSUANXIXIAN(LC2i)。ZHEILIANGTIAOXIANDOUSHIYIREYAHEIJUANWEIYUANLIAO,SHENGCHAN2 BBIAOMIANDELENGYACHENGPIN。JUWAIKANJIESHAO,FAGUOYISIBEIGECHANGSHENGCHANDE2BLENGYADAIGANGBIAOMIANYOUYUOUZHOUBIAOZHUNGUIDINGDE2BBIAOMIAN I31。ZHEILEISHENGCHANXIANBAOKUOLEPOLINJI,PAOWANJI,FLNQIANDEYUSUANXI,SHUANGJIJIALENGYAJI,TUIHUOLU,DIANJIESUANXI,HUNSUANSUANXIHEPINGZHENGJI。NIANCHULIDAIGANGNENGLI25WAN ~27WANt。

  第二种类型是以芬兰奥托昆普不锈钢公司的 IRAPL为代表,直接采用热轧黑卷为原料,轧机前没有热轧带钢酸洗装置,直接轧制带氧化皮的热轧带钢 ,随后进行退火酸洗,向市场供应低成本、薄规格的NO.1表面热轧带钢。若要生产冷轧2B表面带钢,No.1表面热轧带钢要返回作业线头部,进行第二个轧程处理,向市场提供2B表面的冷轧不锈钢带钢。生产线包括3机架6辊轧机,退火,破鳞,抛丸,电解酸洗和混酸酸洗,平整和拉伸矫直。这条线的年处理能力为110万t,其中No.1表面热轧板 (卷)40万t,冷轧2B表面成品35万t。这是目前世界上技术最复杂、自动化程度最高的一种连续生产线。这类生产线对来料的质量要求较高,各机组加工速度之间的协调是连续线设计 的最大难点,设备设计沙吧体育app必须考虑磨损件的寿命周期与设备的可靠性,对操作人员的素质要求高。

沙吧体育app   DISANZHONGLEIXINGSHIYIJIANZAIZHONGGUOGUANGZHOUDELIANZHONGBUXIUGANGGONGSIDEYAZHITUIHUOSUANXIXIANWEIDAIBIAO 。TASHIYONGJINGGUOTUIHUOSUANXIDEREYABAIJUANHELENGYADAIGANGWEIYUANLIAO,SHENGCHAN2BDENGBIAOMIANDELENGYABUXIUGANG。CHANPINDEZUIXIAOHOUDUKEDA0.3mm,ZHEITIAOXIANBAOKUO3JIJIAZXINGYAJI、TUIHUOLU、DIANJIESUANXI、HUNSUANSUANXI、PINGZHENGJILASHENJIAOZHIDENG。YUCHUANTONGGONGYILUXIANXIANGBI,YAZHITUIHUOSUANXIXIANSHENGCHANCHENGBENKEJIANGDI25OUYUAN/t。SHENGCHANSHIJIANZHENGMING,YAOBAYAJIHETUIHUOLUDENENGLIWANQUANPIPEIDIJIEHEZAIYITIAOXIANSHANGSHIHENNANDE,XIAOLVSHIBUGAODE。ZHUYAOWENTISHICHULELIANGGEJIZUWANQUANBUTONGDEYUNXINGSHIJIANZHIWAI(TUIHUOLUNIANZUOYESHIJIANYIBANWEI7500XIAOSHI,ERLIANYAJINIANZUOYESHIJIANYIBANWEI7000BUSHI),LIANGGEJIZUZUIJIADEYUNXINGSUDUFANWEIYEBUTONG。MUQIANTUIHUOLUDEZUIGAOYUNXINGSUDUSHI150m/min,ERLIANYAJIYAZHIBUXIUGANGDEZUIJIASUDUDAYUEWEI400m/min。TUIHUOLUDENENGLIJUEDINGYUTVZHI,DUIYUJIDINGDECHANPINGUIGE,TUIHUOLUDEYUNXINGSUDUSHIYIGECHANGSHU,ERLIANYAJIKENENGDEYAZHISUDUJUEDINGYUZONGDEBIANXINGLIANGHEYOUCAILIAOTEXING、DAIGANGKUANDUHEHOUDUJUEDINGDEYAZHILIJU。

沙吧体育app 3、LENGLIANYASHENGCHANGONGYILUXIANBIANJIBENDUANHUIMULU

  由于轧制退火酸洗线存在连轧机能力不能充分发挥,冷轧变形量受到一定限制,各机组设备可靠性及磨损件的寿命周期不同带来的互相牵制等问题,目前,工厂设计的另一个发展是设置单独的多机架冷连轧机,前面配置热轧带钢退火酸洗线,轧后配置带有综合精整设备,比如平整、拉伸矫直,切边和检验的冷轧带钢退火酸洗线。虽然美国的AK钢公司是采用冷连轧,前后分别配置热轧带钢退火酸洗线和冷轧带钢退火酸洗线的工艺路线。但是,该公司是既生产碳钢,又生产不锈钢,碳钢占200万t,不锈钢占37万t。这种既生产碳钢,又生产不锈钢的连轧生产线存在如下缺点:连轧机在轧辊直径、轧制润滑和冷却方面,轧制不锈钢和轧制碳钢两者的要求是不同的,为了适应产量大的碳钢生产,使不锈钢生产受到很大限制。由于轧机选型兼顾不锈钢和碳钢生产,不锈钢的总变形量受到限制,为了满足对带钢表面的要求,生产的钢种有限。为了保护带钢表面,辅助设施必须按照不锈钢的要求进行处理,对碳钢生产来说无疑是一种投资的浪费。由于上述原因,AK钢公司尽管采用了冷连轧的工艺路线生产冷轧不锈钢,但是,产量不高,产品的品种、规格极为有限。
   
  早在l969年初日本曾建设了一套4机架20辊连轧机来生产冷轧不锈钢带钢。在操作上,这套轧机除了存在轧件在20辊轧机中咬入和退带困难的典型问题外,在轧制温度控制和机架间张力设定都存在一些问题。为了克服上述缺点,目前,趋向于专门开发生产不锈钢的连轧机。不锈钢专用连轧机的设计沙吧体育app 应该考虑如下一些因素:

沙吧体育app   WEILEJIANGDIBIANXINGKANGLI,GONGZUOGUNZHIJINGYAOJINXINGYOUHUA,GONGZUOGUNZHIJINGTAIXIAO,MOSUNTAIKUAI ,ERQIEZAILIANYAJIJIEGOUXINGSHIXIA,YOUYUJIJIAWENDAIGANGYOUZHANGLI,YOUKENENGZAOCHENGGONGZUOGUNBUWENDING,YINCI,DUIXIZHANGDEGONGZUOGUNBIXUPEIZHISHUIPINGZHICHENG。RUGUOGONGZUOGUNZHIJINGTAIDA,LENGYAYAXIALVJIANGSHOUDAOXIANZHI,GONGZUOGUNBIXUDEYINGDUJIANGNANYIDEDAOMANZU。BUXIUGANGDELENGYABIANXINGTEXINGYUTANSUGANGDELENGYABIANXINGTEXINGCHAYIHENDA。YINCI,YONGYUYAZHIBUXIUGANGDELENGLIANYAJIWULUNZAIYAZHIYALI、YAZHISUDU、YAZHIWENDUKONGZHIHUOSHIHOUDUYUPINGZHIDUDEKONGZHISHANGDOUJUYOUYUTANGANGLENGLIANYABUTONGDETEDIAN。BAOZHENGWENDINGDELIANXU~L$11GUOCHENG,YOULIYUJIANSHAOHOUDUCHAOCHA、TIGAOCHENGCAILVHEZUIDAXIANDUTIGAOCHANLIANG。YAOYOUYIZHENGTAOSHIHEBUXIUGANGSHENGCHANDEGAOJISHUDIAOJIEXITONG,CAINENGBAOZHENGLENGYABUXIUGANGDEGAOZHILIANG。BAOKUOGONGZUOGUNDECEZHICHENG,ZHONGJIANGUNDEWANGUNHEZHOUXIANGYIDONG,YEYAYAXIA,FENDUANLENGQUEDENGDENG。JUCHENGDEI~ISMSDemagGONGSIYIJINGKAIFACHUYIJISUANJIWEIJICHUDEBIAOMIANZHILIANGKONGZHIXITONG,BINGZHENGZAIDUIZHEITAOXITONGJINXINGXIANCHANGMONISHIYAN。

沙吧体育app   JINJINIANLAILENGYABUXIUGANGDAIGANGSHENGCHANJISHUYOULEFEIKUAIDEFAZHAN。BUTONGDESHENGCHANGONGYILUXIANGEYOUQIBUTONGDEYOUSHIYUSHICHANGDIWEI,DOUJIANGZAISHICHANGSHANGDEDAOJINYIBUDEFAZHAN,JIUJINGYINGGAICAIYONGNAZHONGGONGYILUXIANQUJUEYUGEGEBUXIUGANGSHENGCHANCHANGJIADEJUTITIAOJIAN。DANSHI,CHAOZHEGAOSHENGCHANNENGLIHEGAOBIAOMIANZHILIANG、DAXINGHUA、QUANLIANXUHUADEFANGXIANGFAZHAN,WUYISHIBUXIUGANGSHENGCHANCHANGHESHEBEIZHIZAOCHANGGONGTONGNULIDEFAZHANFANGXIANG。

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